Early childhood caries (ECC) is a major oral health problem. ECC affects infants and preschool children worldwide. ECC is the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth in children aged 71 months or younger. It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors, and in due course of time, can affect other teeth rapidly. The predominant risk factors in the development of ECC can be categorised as microbiological, dietary, and environmental risk factors. Oral health plays a vital role in children for maintaining functions such as mastication, speech development, and a positive self-image. This book delves into the factors contributing to prevalence, risk factors, preventive measures and the management of ECC. It also provides the latest researches and strategies pertaining to early childhood caries, emphasising the importance of prevention and early intervention.